The Women’s Business Council applied an evidence-based approach to their work. Read the evidence papers on GOV.UK.
1 Thevenon, Ali, Adema & Salva Del Pero (2012) ‘Effects of Reducing Gender Gaps in Education and Labour Force Participation on Economic Growth in the OECD’ OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers No. 138
5 Berthold, N., & Gründler, K. (2012). ‘Entrepreneurship and economic growth in a panel of countries’ (No. 118). Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Beiträge des Lehrstuhls für Volkswirtschaftslehre, Wirtschaftsordnung und Sozialpolitik, Universität Würzburg.
8 This figure is calculated using the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor’s figures for Total Entrepreneurial Activity (TEA). TEA is calculated as the proportion of the working age population either in the process of starting a business or running a new business. In 2012, the TEA rates were 6.3% of women and 11.6% ofmen. Multiplying this by the total female working-age population (using ONS’ Labour Market Statistics, this is currently 20.2 million women) and calculating the gap between the current TEA rate for women and the rate for men, the difference is 1.07 million entrepreneurs.
13 There has been large amounts of research about pupils’ subject choices. For example, ASPIRES is a longitudinal study at King’s College London, which has investigated factors influencing educational choices in science by gender. www.kcl.ac.uk/aspires
15 Hutchinson, Rolfe, Moore, Bysshe & Bentley (2011) ‘All Things Being Equal? Equality and diversity in careers education, information, advice and guidance’ Equality and Human Rights Commission Research Report 71.This report found girls more likely to be interested in design, arts, crafts and performing arts while boys are more interested in leisure, sport and tourism, security and the armed forces.
17 Figures obtained using UCAS’s Statistical Enquiry Tool. Figures are for 2011 and based on offers accepted. www.ucas.ac.uk/about_us/stat_services/stats_online/
35 LV= (2011) ‘Working Late Index 2011’. The default retirement age has now been removed, so that employers cannot force employees to retire. The state pension age (SPA) is also increasing and has been equalised between men and women for all women born after 1953, and been increased from 65 to 66. Parliament is considering plans to increase this further. However, there is substantial confusion around SPAs – 62% of women think their SPA is earlier than it actually is.
45 King & Pickard (2012) ‘When is a carer’s employment at risk? Longitudinal analysis of unpaid care and employment in midlife in England’ Personal Social Services Research Unit (PSSRU), London School of Economics (LSE), London, UK
WBC acknowledgement list
The WBC would like to thank the following for their support, the team at the Government Equalities Office: Susan Beaumont-Staite, Tracey Boscott, Susannah Browne, Barbara Collins, Lynn Fidler, Deborah Henshaw, Shoma Jamil, Tara Kaufmann, Helen Leadbetter, Phil Martin, Michael Osei, Helene Reardon-Bond, Jonny Richards, Roopal Shah and Sandra Tucker; as well as the organisations who kindly gave their time to advise us:
30% Club, Athene Forum, Black Women’s National Network, Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, British Banking Association, British Chambers of Commerce, Business in the Community, Carers UK, Confederation of British Industry (CBI) in Hull, Centre of Excellence in Women’s Entrepreneurship, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD), Cranfield University, Education & Employers Taskforce, Employers for Carers, Employers Network for Equality and Inclusion, Encouraging Women into Franchising, Enterprising Women, Equality & Human Rights Commission, Everywoman, Fawcett Society, FDM Group, Federation of Small Businesses, Forward Ladies, Gender and Enterprise Network, Gransnet, Inspirational Journey, Institute of Directors, International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, Katalytik, London Metropolitan University Centre for Micro Enterprise, London School of Economics, Mumsnet, My Family Care, National Apprenticeship Service, National Careers Council, National Child-minders Association, National Day Nurseries Association, National Grid, NatWest, Netmums, Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted), Opportunity Now, PA Consulting Group, Parliament Hill School, Plotr, Prime, Procter and Gamble, Race for Opportunity, Royal Academy, Royal Academy of Engineering, The Women in Technology Network, Tomorrow’s Company, Trades Union Congress (TUC), UK Resource Centre for Women in Science, Engineering and Technology (UKRC), University of East London, University of Kent, WEConnect Europe, Windsor Girls School, Women in Rural Enterprise (WiRE), Women in Rural Enterprise, Women in Science & Engineering (WISE), Women Like Us, Women’s Enterprise Policy Group.
We do apologise to anyone we have inadvertently omitted.