Women are a key source of untapped potential which we need to harness to boost economic growth in the UK.”

Cilla Snowball, CBE (Chair)


Evidence papers

The Women’s Business Council applied an evidence-based approach to their work. Read the evidence papers on GOV.UK


1 Thevenon, Ali, Adema & Salva Del Pero (2012) ‘Effects of Reducing Gender Gaps in Education and Labour Force Participation on Economic Growth in the OECD’ OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers No. 138

2 Labour Force Survey, Q4 2012

3 Labour Market Statistics May 2013, Office for National Statistics

4 Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings 2012, Office for National Statistics

5 Berthold, N., & Gründler, K. (2012). ‘Entrepreneurship and economic growth in a panel of countries’ (No. 118). Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Beiträge des Lehrstuhls für Volkswirtschaftslehre, Wirtschaftsordnung und Sozialpolitik, Universität Würzburg.

6 Carter, Ram, Trehan & Jones (2013) ‘Diversity and SME’s’ Enterprise Research Centre White Paper No. 3

7 BIS (2013) ‘BIS Small Business Survey 2012’ Department for Business Innovation and Skills; Levie & Hart (2012) ‘Global Entrepreneurship Monitor: United Kingdom 2011 Monitoring Report’

8 This figure is calculated using the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor’s figures for Total Entrepreneurial Activity (TEA). TEA is calculated as the proportion of the working age population either in the process of starting a business or running a new business. In 2012, the TEA rates were 6.3% of women and 11.6% ofmen. Multiplying this by the total female working-age population (using ONS’ Labour Market Statistics, this is currently 20.2 million women) and calculating the gap between the current TEA rate for women and the rate for men, the difference is 1.07 million entrepreneurs.

9 BIS (2013) ‘Business Case for Equality: a survey of the academic literature’ Department for Business Innovation and Skills Occasional Report No. 4

10 PA Consulting (2013) ‘Girls Allowed: How a renewed focus on culture can break the diversity stalemate’

11 Perren, Roberts, Stafford & Hirsch (2012) ‘Evaluation of the Implementation of the Equality Act 2010: Report 1 – Organisational Approaches to Equality’ Government Equalities Office

12 BIS (2013) ‘Business Case for Equality: a survey of the academic literature’ Department for Business Innovation and Skills Occasional Report No. 4

13 There has been large amounts of research about pupils’ subject choices. For example, ASPIRES is a longitudinal study at King’s College London, which has investigated factors influencing educational choices in science by gender. www.kcl.ac.uk/aspires

14 Ofsted (2011) ‘Girls’ Career Aspirations’ Ofsted

15 Hutchinson, Rolfe, Moore, Bysshe & Bentley (2011) ‘All Things Being Equal? Equality and diversity in careers education, information, advice and guidance’ Equality and Human Rights Commission Research Report 71.This report found girls more likely to be interested in design, arts, crafts and performing arts while boys are more interested in leisure, sport and tourism, security and the armed forces.

16 Archer, DeWitt, Osborne, Dillon, Willis and Wong (2012) ‘Balancing acts”: Elementary school girls’ negotiations of femininity, achievement, and science’ Science Education, 96 (6), 967-989.

17 Figures obtained using UCAS’s Statistical Enquiry Tool. Figures are for 2011 and based on offers accepted. www.ucas.ac.uk/about_us/stat_services/stats_online/

18 Annual Population Survey 2012

19 Olsen, Gash, Vandecasteele, Walthery & Heuvelman (2010) ‘The Gender Pay Gap in the UK 1997-2007’ Government Equalities Office

20 Social Market Foundation ‘In the Balance: the STEM Human Capital Crunch’

21 National Skills Forum: Closing the Gender Skills Gap, 2009

22 Ofsted (2011) ‘Girls aspirations’ Ofsted

23 www.cii.co.uk/about/news-and-insight/articles/cii-publishes-its-first-internships-good-practice-guide/3437 and www.cii.co.uk/knowledge/policy-and-public-affairs/articles/apprenticeships/18849

24 CBI (2012) ‘First steps: a new approach for our schools’

25 Houston & Marks (2003) ‘The Role of Planning and Workplace Support in Returning to Work After Maternity Leave’ British Journal of Industrial Relations 41(2)

26 Sealy & Vinnicombe (2013) ‘Female FTSE Board Report 2013: False dawn of progress for women on boards?’ Cranfield School of Management

27 McKinsey (2007) ‘Women Matter: Gender diversity, a corporate performance driver’ McKinsey

28 McKinsey (2012) ‘Getting More Women to the Top of Professional Service Firms: final document to the 30% Club Professional Service Firms initiative’ McKinsey and Company

29 Hewlett, Leader-Chivee & Sumberg (2012) ‘Sponser Effect: UK’ Center for Talent Innovation

30 Daycare Trust, Childcare Costs Survey 2008-2012. Figure is based on the average cost of 25 hours of nursery care in England.

31 Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings 2008-2012, Office for National Statistics. Figures are based on median gross annual earnings.

32 Population Projections, Office for National Statistics

33 CIPD (2012) ‘Flexible Working Provision and Uptake’ CIPD Survey Report

34 CIPD (2012) ‘Flexible Working Provision and Uptake’ CIPD Survey Report

35 LV= (2011) ‘Working Late Index 2011’. The default retirement age has now been removed, so that employers cannot force employees to retire. The state pension age (SPA) is also increasing and has been equalised between men and women for all women born after 1953, and been increased from 65 to 66. Parliament is considering plans to increase this further. However, there is substantial confusion around SPAs – 62% of women think their SPA is earlier than it actually is.

36 Barrell, Kirby & Orazgani (2011) “The macroeconomic impact from extending working lives” Department for Work and Pensions Working Paper No. 95

37 OECD (2011) ‘Pensions at a Glance’ Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development

38 Scottish Widows (2012) ‘Women and Pensions Report: Mind the expectations gap’

39 Annual Survey of Hours and Earning 2012, Office for National Statistics

40 Labour Force Survey Q4 2012

41 UKCES (2012) ‘Working Futures 2010-2020’ UK Commission for Employment and Skills

42 ONS (2013) ‘Unpaid Care in England and Wales, 2011’ Office for National Statistics

43 Yeandle, Bennett, Buckner, Shipton & Suokas (2006) ‘Who Cares Wins: The social and business benefits of supporting working carers’ Report by the Centre for Social Inclusions for Carers UK

44 Ipsos Mori 2009: www.ipsos-mori.com/researchpublications/researcharchive/2526/One-million-give-up-work-to-care.aspx

45 King & Pickard (2012) ‘When is a carer’s employment at risk? Longitudinal analysis of unpaid care and employment in midlife in England’ Personal Social Services Research Unit (PSSRU), London School of Economics (LSE), London, UK

46 Glasby, Ham, Littlechild & McKay (2010) ‘The Case for Social Care Reform: the wider economic and social benefits’ Health Services Management Centre

47 Carter, Ram, Trehan & Jones (2013) ‘Diversity and SME’s’ Enterprise Research Centre White Paper No. 3;

48 BIS (2013) ‘BIS Small Business Survey 2012’ Department for Business Innovation and Skills

49 See footnote 8

50 BIS (2011) ‘Small Business Survey 2010: women-led business boost’ Department for Business Innovation and Skills

51 BDRC Continental (unpublished) ‘Women-led Businesses: Analysis from the SME Finance Monitor YEQ1 2012’. This is unpublished research shared with the Government Equalities Office.

52 Levie & Hart (2012) ‘Global Entrepreneurship Monitor: United Kingdom 2011 Monitoring Report’

53 Waring, J, Brierton, J (2010), ‘Missing the Market: The Untapped Growth Potential of UK Women Entrepreneurs’

54 See: www.mitie.com/about-us/our-culture/entrepreneurs

WBC acknowledgement list

The WBC would like to thank the following for their support, the team at the Government Equalities Office: Susan Beaumont-Staite, Tracey Boscott, Susannah Browne, Barbara Collins, Lynn Fidler, Deborah Henshaw, Shoma Jamil, Tara Kaufmann, Helen Leadbetter, Phil Martin, Michael Osei, Helene Reardon-Bond, Jonny Richards, Roopal Shah and Sandra Tucker; as well as the organisations who kindly gave their time to advise us:

30% Club, Athene Forum, Black Women’s National Network, Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, British Banking Association, British Chambers of Commerce, Business in the Community, Carers UK, Confederation of British Industry (CBI) in Hull, Centre of Excellence in Women’s Entrepreneurship, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD), Cranfield University, Education & Employers Taskforce, Employers for Carers, Employers Network for Equality and Inclusion, Encouraging Women into Franchising, Enterprising Women, Equality & Human Rights Commission, Everywoman, Fawcett Society, FDM Group, Federation of Small Businesses, Forward Ladies, Gender and Enterprise Network, Gransnet, Inspirational Journey, Institute of Directors, International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, Katalytik, London Metropolitan University Centre for Micro Enterprise, London School of Economics, Mumsnet, My Family Care, National Apprenticeship Service, National Careers Council, National Child-minders Association, National Day Nurseries Association, National Grid, NatWest, Netmums, Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted), Opportunity Now, PA Consulting Group, Parliament Hill School, Plotr, Prime, Procter and Gamble, Race for Opportunity, Royal Academy, Royal Academy of Engineering, The Women in Technology Network, Tomorrow’s Company, Trades Union Congress (TUC), UK Resource Centre for Women in Science, Engineering and Technology (UKRC), University of East London, University of Kent, WEConnect Europe, Windsor Girls School, Women in Rural Enterprise (WiRE), Women in Rural Enterprise, Women in Science & Engineering (WISE), Women Like Us, Women’s Enterprise Policy Group.

We do apologise to anyone we have inadvertently omitted.